No result found
This report presents the findings of the study on the state of healthcare for End-Stage Renal Disease in Nairobi County. End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is the degree of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) for which Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) is needed for survival. ESRD patients in Kenya are experiencing barriers in trying to access quality Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) services. It is against this backdrop that this study sought to explore the state of healthcare for ESRD in Nairobi County in a bid to highlight the plight of the renal disease patients. To achieve the objectives of this study, a total of 294 patients and 11 service provides (nurses and doctors) within Nairobi County were interviewed. The findings may enlighten and give insight to the National and County government and other stakeholders to increase access to RRT in Kenya.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health;
The provision of safely managed sanitation in informal settlements is a challenge, especially in schools that require durable, clean, sex-segregated facilities for a large number of children. In informal settlements in Nairobi, school sanitation facilities demand considerable capital costs, yet are prone to breakage and often unhygienic. The private sector may be able to provide quality facilities and services to schools at lower costs as an alternative to the sanitation that is traditionally provided by the government. We conducted a randomized trial comparing private sector service delivery (PSSD) of urine-diverting dry latrines with routine waste collection and maintenance and government standard delivery (GSD) of cistern-flush toilets or ventilated improved pit latrines. The primary outcomes were facility maintenance, use, exposure to fecal contamination, and cost. Schools were followed for one school year. There were few differences in maintenance and pathogen exposure between PSSD and GSD toilets. Use of the PSSD toilets was 128% higher than GSD toilets, as measured with electronic motion detectors. The initial cost of private sector service delivery was USD 2053 (KES 210,000) per school, which was lower than the average cost of rehabilitating the government standard flush-type toilets (USD 9306 (KES 922,638)) and constructing new facilities (USD 114,889 (KES 1,169,668)). The private sector delivery of dry sanitation provided a feasible alternative to the delivery of sewage sanitation in Nairobi informal settlements and might elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa.
Through this project, Oxfam gained insight into the lives of thousands of women in Mukuru informal settlements who work as casual domestic workers and that these women faced serious livelihood challenges which include low and delayed pay, poor working conditions and sexual exploitation as well as physical and psychological abuse. Despite these challenges, they continue to work under these difficult circumstances for the sake of their survival and to support their dependants which included young children. This level of vulnerability and the labour challenges faced by these women encouraged Oxfam to initiate consultations with other stakeholders with the aim of working with them to reduce their difficulties and suffering.
Oxfam entered into partnership with Prospect Union and agreed that any project targeting the challenges of women domestic workers required baseline information that would provide objective details of the working environment under which the domestic workers operate. Such information is currently not documented. Oxfam carried out this study, which now provides credible data and improved understanding of this informal and relatively opaque sector. With financial support from Prospect Union the study was carried out in Mukuru informal settlement in May and June 2013. The report provides a detailed analysis of the context in which the women domestic workers operate and challenges they face. This publication will provide the guideline on the programmatic areas that Oxfam and Prospect Union will explore in working with and empowering the women domestic workers. It is our hope that other development partners, the Government of Kenya and other stakeholders will find this publication useful in their own work.
Africa America Institute, The;
The role of leadership in rapidly developing African countries is fundamentally important and the need for leadership development across the African continent is critical for social and economic progress. Since 1953, the Africa-America Institute (AAI) has advocated for educational and human capacity building on the African continent by offering a wide range of scholarship, training and exchange programs that have benefited over 23,000 people from 54 African countries.
In 2007, AAI launched its Transformational Leadership Program (TLP) with a grant from The Coca-Cola Africa Foundation (TCCAF) to offer business training and broader leadership development for managers of African NGOs and small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The program has reached 351 participants from 14 countries through certificate and degree programs at United States International University (USIU) in Nairobi, Kenya; Pan-African University (EDC) in Lagos, Nigeria; and University of Stellenbosch (USB) in Cape Town, South Africa.
In 2013, an evaluation of the TLP was conducted using surveys, questionnaires, individual interviews and focus groups with strategically selected stakeholder groups, site visits, participant reflective writing, Town Hall meetings, and a comprehensive review of program and university documents.
This study developed a conceptual framework for managing Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) in urbanised areas for improvement of the business environment.
World Wildlife Fund (WWF Germany);
This paper applies the water footprint methodology to six megacities across Africa, Asia, and Latin America to explore the effect of urbanization on water use and demand and determine what measures need to be taken to meet this demand. Key threats to water resources in many or all of the cities studied include: water stress or scarcity, pollution and decreasing water quality, and vulnerability to extreme weather caused by climate change.
Population Services International;
Objectives: To understand women's and men's motivations for entering into cross-generational relationships and to examine how their risk perception for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affects sexual decision-making and condom use.
Methods: A total of eight focus groups were conducted with women aged 15 -- 19 and 28 indepth interviews were carried out with men aged 30 years and older in Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu, and Meru. Participants discussed motivations for entering into non-marital, crossgenerational relationships, perceived risks, relationship dynamics, and circumstances under which older men and younger women meet. Data analysis highlighted common and divergent themes on cross-generational relationships and the risks associated with them.
Results: According to study participants, Kenyan men who pursue younger women do not fit a "sugar daddy" stereotype; rather they come from a variety of social and professional backgrounds. Young women actively seek partners who are willing to spend money on them whereas men look for partners who are well mannered, need money and have certain physical attributes. Women's primary incentive for engaging in cross-generational relationships is financial and material gain while men seek younger partners for sexual gratification. Pressure from peers to fit in and some family members to secure financial assistance from older partners can compel women to engage in cross-generational relationships. Although some peer groups support and encourage such relationships, other groups, especially wives, same-aged boyfriends and parents, disapprove of them. As a result, cross-generational couples are often preoccupied by the threat of discovery. Risk perception for STIs/HIV is low and couples rarely use condoms.
Conclusions: Most cross-generational couples underestimate their risk for infection from STIs/ HIV. Young women believe that older men are low-risk partners because they are less likely to be promiscuous and more likely to remain faithful to younger partners and wives. Men believe that young partners are innocent and sexually inexperienced. Material gain, emotional factors, sexual gratification, and recognition from peers override the risk for STIs and HIV infection. Condom use is low and young women's ability to negotiate use is compromised by age disparities and economic dependence. Study findings suggest several programmatic strategies for targeting young women and older men. Behavior change communication campaigns should educate women and men about the increased risk of STIs/HIV associated with cross-generational relationships. Programs should also promote safer sexual practices, such as consistent condom use, within relationships. Campaigns could employ positive role models to encourage young women to seek safer alternatives to cross-generational relationships and decrease peer pressure among men to pursue such relationships. Long-term interventions include improving young women's access to educational and career opportunities, and working with communities to determine the best approach for changing social norms and the acceptability of cross-generational relationships.