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Here in part two, we begin our examination of community resilience. It builds on the findings in part one by taking a closer look at the context of climate change and violence in three countries where Christian Aid works: Angola, Honduras and Mali. Each case study sets out the particular context in terms of conflict, violence and climate change, explores the links between climate vulnerability and violent conflict, and discusses approaches to supporting climate and conflict resilience in that country, based on the experiences of Christian Aid staff. In Angola, the protection of land rights is essential in building resilience and climate change adaptation among communities. In Mali, tackling security challenges and programming with an awareness of the presence of unusual actors are key to moving forward in a region vulnerableto both extreme weather and conflict. In Honduras, building environmental resilience using conflict sensitivity principles offers great promise in addressing the challenges. Both climate change and violence are extremely context specific,and therefore, this paper does not attempt an across-the-board analysis according to a set of quantitative indicators. However, it does attempt to identify parallels and differences between the three case studies, in order to make some recommendations for policy development and wider application. Most importantly, part two takes the view that building resilience in communities is just one important part in the menu of options – it does not stand alone in responding to the challenges of climate change and conflict. When taken alongside community-level tools for understanding the root causes of violence, such as participatory vulnerability and capacity assessments (PVCAs), and when complemented by national and global advocacy on the responsibilities and obligations of duty-bearers and market actors, it becomes the building block in Christian Aid's overall approach to climate justice.
By analysing the approaches governments and donors are taking, we highlight ways in which progress is being made, and we call on decision-makers to shift mindsets, change ways of working, and invest now in effective integration to improve child health.
Building on last year's The missing ingredients report, this report highlights why WASH is essential for nutrition, and how this integration could be strengthened. Through an analysis of nutrition and WASH plans and policies in ten countries, we identify gaps and ways of working. The report highlights where there has been effective integration at the policy level and how improvements can be made. It also includes an analysis of donor initiatives and to what extent WASH has been incorporated in nutrition investments.
People gather in structured, if informal, community groups for many reasons—social, such as a book club or softball league; economic, such as a team hosting a fundraiser for a member's medical expenses; or political, such as neighbors meeting to address flooding caused by poor infrastructure. But how does participating in such groups affect people's well-being or decisions to work for other community improvements? Level of political knowledge? Level of trust toward group members, people in the broader community, or institutions such as the government? Or willingness to tolerate differences that are often at the root of conflict, such as ethnicity and religion?
Through an Innovation and Research Grant funded by USAID's Center of Excellence on Democracy, Human Rights, and Governance under the Democracy Fellows and Grants Program, Professors Jaimie Bleck from the University of Notre Dame and Philippe LeMay-Boucher from Heriot-Watt University, in collaboration with Jacopo Bonan from Catholic University of the Sacred Heart and Bassirou Sarr from the Paris School of Economics, worked to answer these questions by studying community groups called grins that meet in neighborhoods across Mali's cities. The research, which included both survey data and data generated through the public goods and trust experimental games, was implemented in two sites in Mali: the capital Bamako and the twin cities of Mopti and Sevare, on the border between the formerly occupied north and the south. Key findings include:
Grins' primary purpose is social, but the groups also help members meet economic needs and provide a venue for political discussion and community service, such as neighborhood cleanup.
The majority of grins are male-only, and the majority of grin members are male, comparatively better educated, and unmarried; however, members of male-only grins trusted one another less than members of mixed-gender or female-only grins.
Members are better able to produce public goods than non-members, but only when working with members of their own grin.
Members are considered more trustworthy than non-members, except for grins with internally displaced persons as members.
Grinmembers had more trust in social institutions and diverse ethnic groups, though no more trust of the government; members of ethnically homogenous grins trusted diverse ethnic groups less.
This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2015/16, selected for review under the women's empowerment thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental impact evaluation carried out in January 2016 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the 'Girls CAN - Promoting Secondary Education in West Africa' project.
The overall objective of this project was to promote the successful transition of adolescent girls from primary to secondary school. This was achieved by rolling out a variety of activities to support the change from within the community. It was, therefore, aimed not only at girls, but also at all community members involved in the project (e.g. mothers, school directors and religious figures).
The project was implemented by Oxfam in conjunction with the Association d'Appui à l'Auto Développement Communautaire (AADeC), a local NGO, in collaboration with the Centre d'Animation Pedagogique (CAP) of Baguinéda, and the Ministry of National Education. It started in October 2011 in 17 primary schools and eight secondary schools, and ended in December 2015.
Read more about Oxfam's Effectiveness Reviews.
Global Handwashing Partnership;
2016 was a big year in hand hygiene! This summary outlines key themes and findings from 59 peer-reviewed handwashing-related research papers published in 2016, relevant to low and middle-income countries, around 1) the benefits of handwashing with soap, 2) handwashing compliance, 3) approaches to handwashing behavior, 4) determinants of handwashing with soap, and 5) handwashing hardware efficacy.
Lancet Global Health, The;
This study is the first scientific trial to show that child growth improved when communities in the Republic of Mali, in West Africa, participated in a community-led sanitation program. While rates of diarrhoeal disease did not change, there were improvements in height and weight of children who were less than one year of age at the study's onset.
This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2013/14, selected for review under the resilience thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental evaluation carried out in March/April 2014 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the 'Increasing Food Security' project.
This project includes two related initiatives that have been carried out by Oxfam together with local partners since 2010 that are aimed at building food security and resilience among vulnerable people in Mali.
For more information, the data for this effectiveness review is available through the UK Data Service. Read more about the Oxfam Effectiveness Reviews.
A case study on the CCRP-funded project "Sustaining Farmer-Managed Seed Initiatives in Mali, Niger, and Burkina Faso".
This report deals with the issues, or rather, with the responses to the 2012 food crisis in the Sahel, from a gender perspective. The field research, which was conducted in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger, builds on past work and reflects the statements made by local people.
The report finds that household resilience is inconceivable without rural women. And further, households in which women have a greater stake in decision making regarding food are that much more resilient.
With continued food insecurity, the perception of the role of women in Sahelian society is evolving, with the concept of an ideal woman as one who has a greater involvement in taking care of household needs. The image of the woman who expects her husband to provide for everything seems to be increasingly a thing of the past.
World Resources Institute (WRI);
At the 18th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the parties agreed to a standard format for developed countries to follow when reporting on the climate finance they provide to developing countries.
Developed countries will use these formats for the first time when they submit their Biennial Reports to the UNFCCC in early 2014. Later in 2014, developing countries are expected to submit Biennial Update Reports showing the financial support that they have received. From initial attempts to measure and report climate finance by developed and developing countries, it is already apparent that information on finance provided is unlikely to match information on finance received.
Aside from the reporting requirements of the UNFCCC, better financial data can help decision makers in developing countries identify gaps, improve coordination and management, and raise funds to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Better climate finance information can also enable countries to draw lessons from the use of different financial instruments and develop strategies and policies that aim to expand finance for climate change. Improved data will allow the information reported by developed countries to be cross-checked, thus promoting transparency, completeness, and accuracy. Finally, it can contribute to a more comprehensive picture of climate financial flows in relation to development assistance at the national and international levels.
This working paper reports on three workshops in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, in which participants discussed some of the steps that developing countries and their international partners can take toward monitoring and tracking climate finance more effectively. More than 40 representatives from 20 developing countries, regional development banks, and national organizations attended the three workshops. Participants shared information on the limits of existing legislation and mandates, national planning and approval processes, financial management systems, efforts to coordinate among ministries and development partners, and many other unique challenges faced by the participating countries. WRI obtained additional information via a questionnaire, follow-up correspondence, and interviews with representatives of the countries.
The 2013 elections helped to restore constitutional order in Mali and marked the start of a period of hope for peace, stability and development. The challenge is now to respond to the Malian people's desire for improved governance.
This briefing note, based on the experiences of Oxfam and its Malian civil society partners, calls on the new government to ensure:
equitable development across all regions of the country;
increased citizen participation, in particular women's political participation;
improved access to justice;
the promotion of national reconciliation.
It also calls on the UN mission and international donors to fund and protect this work, and to ensure that results are recorded in a transparent and accountable way.
This report presents the findings of an effectiveness review carried out on Oxfam's response to the 2011/2012 food insecurity response in Mali that was undertaken through the application of Oxfam's Humanitarian Indicator Tool. Overall the response scored 45 per cent and met or almost met 4 of the 11 standards. Although this is below the 60 per cent cut-off point, complicating political instability and conflict need to be taken into account. This intensified needs and contributed to extending the coverage targets. Operational challenges were aggravated further by problems in attracting French speaking staff. Together with lack of preparedness these combined to cause delays, hinder coverage and to under deliver on technical standards. However, the quality of Oxfam's partnerships meant that access to affected populations in Gao was retained after Oxfam staff withdrew due to insecurity. Sudden political changes were also accommodated by Oxfam's advocacy and media teams, which were able to make important inputs and influence the UN and AU's discourse on Mali.