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Around the globe, a wave of financial innovation that seeks to create social and environmental benefits while producing attractive returns is shaping the field of sustainable finance.
From investments in publicly listed corporations based on environmental, social, and governance factors, to bonds issued to fund climate and environmental improvements; from micro-credit to small retailers through innovative credit assessments, to parametric insurance products improving the disaster resilience of countries, the world of sustainable finance is growing and becoming increasingly diverse.
In this report, we take a closer look at these innovations and more, highlighting how they are working to mobilize private-sector capital at scale to address social and environmental challenges. We also explore recent developments and potential opportunities in Asia's four largest economies: China, India, Japan, and Indonesia.
This evaluation is presented as part of Oxfam's Effectiveness Review Series 2016/17, selected for review under the women's empowerment thematic area. The evaluation took place in August 2016 in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. It intended to evaluate the success of the 'Reducing the Occurrence of Gender Based Violence' project in the region in reducing gender based violence (GBV) and promoting women's empowerment. The project operated with 10 partners in West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara, South Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi and Jakarta. This Effectiveness Review was conducted only in East Nusa Tenggara due to budgetary constraints. In East Nusa Tenggara activities started in 2012 and the project was implemented by four partner organizations: SSP, CIS, YABIKU and LHB APIK. This evaluation was conducted in August 2016 in three districts in East Nusa Tenggara on the Timor island. The evaluation adopted a quasi-experimental impact evaluation design to measure the effect that is causally attributable to - and representative of - the project's intervention.
Rockefeller Archive Center;
My dissertation analyzes the International Labor Organization's (ILO) postcolonial development activities in India and Indonesia based around productivity and its relationship to economic inequality. Accordingly, I zoomed in on the Ford Foundation's collections that were connected to the ILO, India, and Indonesia. Neither the Ford nor the Rockefeller Foundation had a sustained connection to sponsoring the ILO, and the documents were scant. Thankfully, Ford granted considerable funds and expert guidance to both India and Indonesia. This researcher's report will begin with an introduction to the climate of political economy and development that infused Ford's notions of manpower and political economy. It then transitions to a description of my findings for India and Indonesia. Indonesia's fractured history is well displayed by the timing of the Ford Foundation's technical assistance, in spite of the limited archival material for my dissertation. It closes with a meditation on the meaning of development, capitalism, and shifts in international political economy at the end of the twentieth century.
Institute of Development Studies (IDS);
A rapid review of the literature has found a selection of innovative WASH options available for situations of severe population overcrowding and limited spaces. Case study information was collated from African, Middle Eastern, South Asian and Caribbean countries. As requested, a number of experts were consulted for their opinion where there was a lack of project evaluations or grey literature.
World Bank Group;
With 2.1 billion people – mostly in rural areas – lacking safely managed drinking water and reported low rural water supply functionality rates, the Sustainable Development Goals pose a triple challenge: to reach unserved mostly rural population groups, to raise service levels, and to sustain existing and future services. This assessment uses a multi-country case study approach to identify good practices and challenges toward building sector capacity and strengthening sustainable service delivery models for rural areas. Recognizing the limitations of the Demand Responsive Approach, the emergence of various management models, the identified need for ongoing support to rural service providers, and the critical role of enabling institutions and policies beyond the community-level, the added value of this assessment lies in: i) the development of a comprehensive analytical framework that can be used to analyze and operationalize a more sustainable service delivery approach for rural water supply; ii) the rich set of cases and good practices from the 16 countries informing the global body of "knowledge in implementation," and iii) the formulation of recommendations and policy directions to improve the sustainability of services depending on sector development stage. Policy recommendations are centered around five areas: institutional capacity, financing, asset management, water resources management, and monitoring and regulatory oversight.
IIE Center for Academic Mobility Research & Impact;
The second report from our 10-year impact study of the Ford Foundation International Fellowships Program (IFP), Social Justice Leaders in Action provides an in-depth look at the lives and careers of IFP alumni in three Asian countries—India, Indonesia, and the Philippines—detailing the different pathways alumni have taken and the ways they have leveraged their skills and networks to effect change.
Drawing upon focus groups and interviews with 274 IFP alumni and community stakeholders, this qualitative research highlights the stories behind the numbers shared in the study's first report, Social Justice and Sustainable Change: The Impacts of Higher Education, released in April 2016. The findings from Social Justice Leaders in Action provide insights not only at how life-altering IFP was at an individual level, but how that transformative power extends through alumni to their organizations, communities, and societies.
The gap between the richest and the rest in Indonesia has grown faster in the past two decades than in any other country in South-East Asia. The four richest men in Indonesia now have more wealth than the poorest 100 million people. Inequality is slowing down poverty reduction, dampening economic growth and threatening social cohesion. President Jokowi has made fighting inequality his administration's top priority for 2017. This report shows how he could achieve this by enforcing a living wage for all workers, increasing spending on public services, and making big corporations and rich individuals pay their fair share of tax.
Gender Transformative and Responsible Agribusiness Investments in South East Asia (GRAISEA) is a regional programme which is funded by the Government of Sweden. Based on the recognition that financial viability and gender equitable and sustainable supply chains are not mutually exclusive, GRAISEA promotes win-win-win propositions: wins for communities, small-scale producers and larger businesses.
Since the inception of GRAISEA at the beginning of 2015, pilots in shrimp aquaculture were launched in Indonesia and Vietnam. One element of these projects is to connect with ongoing efforts to develop more sustainable methods in shrimp aquaculture. Oxfam has advocated that the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC), one of the certification initiatives and aquaculture improvement programmes, includes social aspects as standard.
This report examines support for small-scale fishery projects, and provides an overview of Rare's Fish Forever initiative.
Key findings include:
Funding from Foundations
-Between 2007 to 2015, we identified $91 million in grants directed towards small-scale fishing (SSF) projects. An additional $136 million in grants was directed towards projects that may be relevant for small-scale fisheries, but it is not clear from the grant description –most of these grants are for marine protected areas. In sum, this is ~$10-$23 million per year in grants to projects that are potentially relevant for SSF.
-Approximately 0.5% of all foundation grantmaking goes to marine conservation, and we estimate that between 5-12% of that is directed to SSF relevant projects.
Funding from DFI's
-Based on a review of the funding of seven major DFIs (World Bank, GEF, IADB, ADB, KfW, AfDB, and CAF) from 2000-2016, we identified $1.825 billion of investment in SSF related projects. An additional $4.351 billion was invested in projects that may be relevant for small-scale fisheries (e.g., coastal zone management). In sum this amounts to ~$107-$363 million per year of funding from these DFIs for projects that are potentially relevant for SSF.
-SSF related projects made up less than 0.5%on average of the DFI's portfolios.
California Environmental Associates;
This report is the 2015 baseline edition of what is intended to be a regular series for monitoring and tracking relevant changes in coastal marine resources and fisheries management in Indonesia. Since the objective is to update the report on a regular basis, this baseline report tracks data for the most recent year available by each indicator.
Economist Intelligence Unit, The;
Fixing Food is an Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) report on food system sustainability globally, spanning agriculture, nutrition, and food loss and waste. It draws on an interview programme with experts from the academic, public and private sectors and is published alongside the Food Sustainability Index (FSI), a quantitative and qualitative benchmarking model, which ranks 25 countries according to their food system sustainability. The project was developed with the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition (BCFN).
SDG Philanthropy Platform;
In 2014, three foundations came together with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Foundation Center and Rockefeller Philanthropy Advisors to create a platform for change that would bring the philanthropy sector into the partnership of those addressing these grand challenges. We and our founding funders, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, Ford Foundation and The MasterCard Foundation, recognized that civil society and business were already creating coalitions and processes to help achieve the SDGs. Our work as the SDG Philanthropy Platform, described here and on our website SDGFunders.org, was designed to bring in this sector using the essential elements of a platform.
What is a platform? Unlike bounded projects and programs, a platform creates a playing field that draws in more and more actors over time toward shared purposes. Designed without a gatekeeping function on size or numbers, such a Platform is able to scale over time in response to demand from funders, grantees and anyone in any sector who seeks deeper information or partnerships on the SDGs, as well as pathways to achieve more systems-level change. As the SDG Philanthropy Platform, we have since early 2014 convened dozens of meetings in many countries to stimulate new partnerships so that these grand challenges can be met.
Governments and the UN system have an enormous responsibility in shepherding the achievement of the SDGs. But they cannot, nor should they, do it alone. Today's problems are so complex and urgent that new approaches are required that quite literally mobilize every sector and level of society. Only with deep awareness and embracing of the SDGs, and the rights and obligations they represent, will we be able, as humanity and the planet, tohold ourselves mutually accountable for achieving them.