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More than three years after it was initiated in the aftermath of the 2011 famine, the early-warning, early-action trigger mechanism for Somalia remains a work in progress. This paper looks at how the mechanism has functioned during the 2016/7 drought crisis response, uncovers a widespread consensus about the value of the tool, and explores the challenges involved in developing the dashboard, generating support and putting in place an accountability framework. It looks for learning around the effectiveness of such tools, which could potentially support similar models in other countries. This paper also highlights suggestions from a range of stakeholders regarding actions that might support greater buy-in to the dashboard and broader collaboration at all levels, helping ensure the mechanism meets its aim of facilitating decision making for early action, thereby better protecting the people of Somalia.
Somalia receives more money from migrants abroad than from humanitarian and development assistance and foreign direct investment combined. Now, these remittances to Somalia are under threat. Somali-American Money Transfer Operators (MTOs), a critical link to a country that has been mostly cut off from the international banking system, need bank accounts in the United States in order to complete money transfers to Somalia. Though these MTOs have invested significantly in compliance, banks in the US have steadily closed their accounts and declined to open new ones. Further account closures for Somali-American MTOs would be disastrous for Somalia's recovery and would dramatically reduce the transparency and security of remittances.
In recent years, there has been a growing recognition by policy makers and the international development community that longer-term social protection programming has the potential to reduce poverty and inequality and serve as a foundation upon which, viable livelihoods can be built. In many countries, specially those that are frequently affected by climatic and conflict hazards, this has led to calls for a shift in approach away from interventions thatsimply address the symptoms of household vulnerability towards those which deal with the causes. For more than two decades Somalia has lurched from one humanitarian crisis to another. This debate around the potential of social protection is therefore particularly acute, as years of humanitarian programming seem to have had little impact on increasing household resilience to shocks. Furthermore, the country still ranks 165 out of the 170 countries included in the UN's Human Development Index, and number one on the US Fund for Peace 'Failed State Index'.A consortium of agencies working in Somalia commissioned this study: Adeso, ACF, DRC and Save the Children. The study is intended to further the discussion on the rationale and practicalities of social protection in South Central Somalia, and to serve as a starting point for the debate around moving away from short-term responses towards longer-term social protection interventions by these agencies, and others.The report comprises six parts: Part 1 describes the political economy in South Central Somalia and highlights some key challengesfor humanitarian actors; Part 2 defines the general concept of social protection and looks at the global evidence of the impact of social protection; Part 3 looks at social protection programs in African countries (particularly those in the Somalia region), and also in fragile states; Part 4 looks at current social protection mechanisms in South Central Somalia; Part 5 describes the actions that are currently needed before humanitarian programming can become predictable, and Part 6 summarizes the way forward, including recommendations and the conclusions from the study.
This report presents the findings of an effectiveness review carried out on Oxfam's response to the 2010/11 drought-related food crisis in Somalia, undertaken through the application of Oxfam's Humanitarian Indicator Tool. For a slow onset crisis, where there was an established early-warning system, Oxfam was slow to react. Having scaled-up its internal capacity, the programme was notable for taking on the challenge needed to expand and ensure that a significant proportion was focused in the worst affected areas and, ultimately, providing assistance to over 900,000 people. The report provides examples of innovative measures taken to ensure standards of accountability were met despite the contextual challenges and the need to manage the programme remotely.
This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2014/15, selected for review under the livelihoods thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental evaluation carried out in October 2014 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the community-driven livelihood and food security initiatives in Lower and Middle Juba Regions project.The project's overall objective was to contribute to improved income generation and food security of families in eleven regions in South Somalia. Project activities included a cash grant for household businesses; provision of donkey carts for transport services; restocking of livestock herds; donation of agricultural equipment; donation of other agricultural inputs such as seeds; support in rehabilitation of irrigation systems including the donation of water pumps; and provision of cash for work. It should be noted that agricultural activities, including support in rehabilitation of irrigation systems, were not given attention as planned and consequently few of these activities were actually carried out. The project activities were implemented by Oxfam in conjunction with a local partner organization - Wajir South Development Association (WASDA).For more information, the data for this effectiveness review is available through the UK Data Service. Read more about the Oxfam Effectiveness Reviews.
Oxfam, UNICEF and local partner Hijra developed a mobile phone based health promotion project in Somalia to support Polio prevention and control which began in November 2013. The project was implemented with two complementary components: pre-emptive community education delivered through interactive SMS on Polio prevention and distribution of water and sanitation items through SMS voucher redemption. This evaluation recommends that mobile phones are a relevant mechanism to deliver health and WASH information in Somalia.
Every year, the Somali diaspora sends home approximately $1.3bn. Remittances account for 25-45 percent of Somalia's economy and exceed the amount it receives in humanitarian aid, development aid and foreign direct investment combined. As Somali money transfer operators lose their bank accounts, Somali families are losing their only formal or transparent channel through which to send money. Somalia needs long-term support to build sustainable financial institutions, and urgent help to maintain its current remittance flows. This briefing reviews international efforts to facilitate remittances to Somalia and focuses on the US and the UK, where the threat to the Somali remittance system is most acute. It also looks at the uncertain future viability of the Somali remittance industry in Australia.
The Water and Sanitation Response for Vulnerable Populations in Lower Juba, Southern Somalia' targeted displaced people and those affected by drought, between 1st November 2007 and 31st July 2008. The project targeted 1,100 households in Afmadow District. It sought to meet humanitarian needs and strengthen livelihoods of ought stricken pastoralists and agro-pastoralists, and also to address vulnerability to future shocks through monthly cash grants. The final evaluation considered the relevance of the programme in the eyes of beneficiaries, analysed whether original objectives had been met, gauged the timeliness of the response, and identified the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the programme.
The "World Citizens Panel" (WCP) was established by Oxfam Novib to measure the impact of its programmes among people living in poverty and injustice. The approach combines quantitative research (impact surveys) with qualitative research (stories of change) and gives participants a voice in evaluation, and the opportunity to learn how programmes can be improved and to contribute to public debate on the effectiveness of development cooperation. This impact study of the programme in Somalia was carried out by Oxfam Novib, HIRDA and partners in Somalia in 2013/2014. The study included a broad set of indicators, covering major dimensions of poverty and injustice. Data collected by partners with the help of a smart phone app was transferred into a central data base, managed and analysed by the Oxfam Novib World Citizens Panel team. This report describes the process and presents the major findings of the analysis which include:Impact on livelihoods: Significant differences between target group and control group were found with respect to increased income, increased value of assets and months of sufficient food.Project participation has a positive impact on school enrolment, but still much to do with respect to the quality of education.Child mortality among the target group was significantly lower than among the control group.Surprisingly, for a country like Somalia that continues to be instable and insecure, a large majority of the respondents have mentioned that they had no experience of physical damage due to disasters and neither do they feel a threat. In addition, few people have taken preventive measures regarding possible future disasters. But also few people feel capable to do so. There were no significant differences between the target group and control group on this topic.Access to information and the ability to talk about women’s rights is very limited in Somalia. Violence against women is a problem according to the majority of respondents.Despite many projects on gender and empowerment, talking about sexual and reproductive rights is still a taboo in many communities, both for our target groups and the control groups.The programme carried out a total of 6000 interviews: the major activities of respondents were sustainable livelihoods (27%), education (17%), humanitarian aid (12%), and women’s rights (12%).
Open Society Foundations;
Somalis in Leicester explores the views and experiences of Somali communities living in Leicester, focusing on five areas of local policy—employment, education, health, political participation, and policing—as well as broader themes of belonging and identity.The presence of Somalis in the UK dates back to the late 19th century. Today, the Somali community of Leicester is one of the largest in the UK, and Leicester's Somalis can be divided into three broad categories: British-born Somalis, Somali refugees and asylum seekers (who came directly from Somalia as a result of the civil conflict), and Somalis who migrated to the UK from various EU countries such as the Netherlands.Somalis in Leicester is part of a seven-city research series, Somalis in European Cities, by the Open Society Foundations' At Home in Europe project, which examines the realities of people from Somali backgrounds in Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Malmo, Leicester, London, and Oslo.
This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2015/16, selected for review under the resilience thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental impact evaluation carried out in November 2015 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the 'Contributing to the Development of Enabling Conditions for Human Security for Vulnerable Pastoralist and Agro-Pastoralist Communities' project.The project under review was implemented in the Somali region of Ethiopia and the Galbeed and Togdheer regions of Somaliland between July 2012 and June 2016. The project was carried out by Oxfam in partnership with several organisations, including Ogden Welfare and Development Association (OWDA), Community Development Service Association (CDSA), Somaliland Pastoral Forum (SOLPAF), Candlelight, Himilo Relief and Development Association (HIRDA), and The Horn of Africa Voluntary Youth Committee (HAVOYOCO). The project had three specific objectives: (1) make pastoralist and agro-pastoralist communities more resilient to drought and conflict; (2) increase voice and representation of civil society, especially women's organisations and youth, in decision-making forums; and (3) raise cross-border issues affecting Ethiopia and Somaliland pastoralists and agro-pastoralists at regional and national forums.Read more about Oxfam's Effectiveness Reviews.
The Somaliland Pastoral Programme was initiated with the aim of strengthening pastoral organisations, before influencing institutions to be more responsive to pastoralist needs. Key activities included: establishment of 12 pastoral organizations, increased responsiveness of Government institutions to pastoralist needs, increased access to good quality primary health care, increased access to resources and alternative livelihoods, effective ought monitoring and preparedness, development of a suitable model for cross boarder operations, enhancement of the capacity of local implementing organizations, and effectiveness in management of the Somaliland programme The expected results were better integration of pastoralists into the political, social and economic systems at national and regional levels. This evaluation covers the first two years of the first phase of the 15 year programme (divided into three-year phases). The purpose of the review is to establish the impact of the programme, look into its approach, document lessons learnt, and provide the way forward.