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This paper is based on a predominately desk-based literature review on national policy frameworks, specifically targeting STEM and ICT education in sub-Saharan Africa. Two country scoping exercises were conducted in Zambia and in South Africa which provided additional grey literature and data from interviews with a range of stakeholders from policymakers to students. This is intended as a forward-looking and policy-oriented paper, tol assist the MasterCard Foundation, policy makers and the international development community in implementing high quality secondary STEM and ICT education in sub-Saharan Africa, targeting disadvantaged learners in difficult delivery contexts. The specific objectives are:- To better understand the characteristics of successful national policy frameworks for increasing access for disadvantages groups of learners, including girls, learners from poor socio-economic backgrounds and speakers of minority languages, to good quality STEM and ICT in secondary education.- To identify successful strategies used to address the data gap of student performance, teacher ability and school level resources available for STEM and ICT education.- To develop a diagnostic framework enabling policy makers to analyse their particular context and identify pressure points in the system, where targeted intervention could be particularly helpful.
The 'Citizen Participation in Adaptation to Climate Change' (CPACC) project aimed to build the resilience of farming households to climate shocks, through promoting conservation farming techniques and livelihood diversification, and through supporting disaster-planning activities and early-warning systems at the community level. This Effectiveness Review used a quasi-experimental approach to assess the impact of the project among households whose members directly participated in the project activities, in one of the three districts where the project was carried out. The results provide evidence that the project had a positive effect on the resilience of participant households, particularly through the community-level disaster preparedness activities. There is also evidence that the project had a positive impact on the adoption of conservation farming techniques, on the area of land cultivated, and on yields. However, the project does not appear to have had the positive effects it sought on engagement in non-agricultural income-generating activities, nor on participation in savings groups. There is no indication that the project had had a positive impact on households' overall material welfare by the time of the survey. This report is part of Oxfam's Effectiveness Review Series.
BioMed Central Health Services Research;
Introduction: Zambia's under-resourced public health system will not be able to deliver on its health-related Millennium Development Goals without a substantial acceleration in mortality reduction. Reducing mortality will depend not only upon increasing access to health care but also upon improving the quality of care that is delivered. Our project proposes to improve the quality of clinical care and to improve utilization of that care,through a targeted quality improvement (QI) intervention delivered at the facility and community level.Description of implementation: The project is being carried out 42 primary health care facilities that serve a largely rural population of more than 450,000 in Zambia's Lusaka Province. We have deployed six QI teams toimplement consensus clinical protocols, forms, and systems at each site. The QI teams define new clinical quality expectations and provide tools needed to deliver on those expectations. They also monitor the care that is provided and mentor facility staff to improve care quality. We also engage community health workers to actively refer and follow up patients.Evaluation design: Project implementation occurs over a period of four years in a stepped expansion to six randomly selected new facilities every three months. Three annual household surveys will determine population estimates of age-standardized mortality and under-5 mortality in each community before, during, and after implementation. Surveys will also provide measures of childhood vaccine coverage, pregnancy care utilization, and general adult health. Health facility surveys will assess coverage of primary health interventions and measures of health system effectiveness.Discussion: The patient-provider interaction is an important interface where the community and the health system meet. Our project aims to reduce population mortality by substantially improving this interaction. Our success will hinge upon the ability of mentoring and continuous QI to improve clinical service delivery. It will also be critical that once the quality of services improves, increasing proportions of the population will recognize their value and begin to utilize them.
Mwengu Social and Health Research Centre, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health;
Clorin is a household water treatment product (a sodium hypochlorite disinfectant) that Society for Family Health launched in Zambia in 1998. This report provides a external assessment of Clorin use in light of the Centers for Disease Control and Pan American Health Organization's overall Safe Water Systems initiative. The intervention took a social marketing approach, targeting low-income households with Clorin at a subsidized price, and sales steadily increased from 1998 to 2004. This involved training for health center staff , neighborhood volunteers, and pharmacists; and promotions through radio, television, newspapers, and posters. The study found that active marketing through community-level personal was very important, while the role of mass media messages was unclear. Collaboration with the government health sector, retailers, and community agents was advised, as was strengthening the water management side of the program.
CIVICUS - World Alliance for Citizen Participation;
This report analyses this multi-faceted nature of CSOs, whether formal or informal in nature, in order to gain a greater understanding of the characteristics that make them a valued partner in the development process, the challenges they encounter, and the capabilities most needed to play their expected roles.
African Study Monographs;
This article examines the social processes and mechanisms of agrarian changes based on a 23-year (1983-2006) case study of Bemba villages in northern Zambia. The Bemba have engaged in a unique shifting cultivation system called the "citemene" system in miombo woodlands. Villagers have sustained a citemene system that does not greatly exceed the amount required for subsistence. They have also maintained a leveling mechanism of distribution and consumption that promotes equity among the people, which could at times deter innovative changes.
Bench Marks Foundation;
This report presents the different approaches to CSR in Zambia among mining companies whose activities have huge impacts on the environment. The mining related issues raised in the report include health and safety, security, education, migrant and settlement patterns, environmental management, poverty reduction, job creation, local economic development, gender and HIV/AIDS.
Department for International Aid;
This document presents an evaluation of the Adolescent Girls Empowerment Program (AGEP), which is comprised of three major components: 1) safe spaces groups in which girls meet once a week over the course of two years for training on sexual and reproductive health, life skills and financial education. Groups are facilitated by a mentor, a young female from the same community as the girls; 2) a health voucher that girls can use at contracted private and public facilities for general wellness and sexual and reproductive health services; and 3) a saving account that has been designed to be girl-friendly. A randomized control trial (RCT) using a cluster design is being used to evaluate the impact of AGEP. The research aims to identify the impact of the intervention on the following key indicators: HIV prevalence, HSV-2 prevalence, age at first sex, age at first birth, contraceptive use, experience of gender-based violence, and educational attainment.
Department for International Aid;
This document presents financial education learning sessions, collectively titled Dream Big! Kwacha for Our Future, were developed as part of the Adolescent Girls Empowerment Program, funded by a grant from the UK Department of International Development. The overall goal of the program is to help vulnerable adolescent girls in Zambia build their social, health and economic assets. Specifically, in order to build girls' economic assets, they participate in training sessions on financial education, as well as have the opportunity to open savings accounts. The project is led by the Population Council, in partnership with the Young Women's Christian Association of Zambia (YWCA Zambia), the National Savings and Credit Bank (NatSave), Making Cents International, and the Government of the Republic of Zambia.